Canada's Hub for International Affairs

International Journal



Editors’ Introduction to International Journal Vol. 69, No. 2 (June 2014)

This year’s annual John W. Holmes issue on Canadian foreign policy brings together an eclectic mix of analyses and commentaries. Some focus explicitly on the state of the academic field. Others are more interested in the policies and practices of Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s Conservative government.

The issue begins with an update, twenty years later, to a seminal article by David Black and Heather Smith surveying the field of Canadian foreign policy literature. Every doctoral candidate in Canadian foreign policy has almost certainly read the original article since it was published in 1993. We anticipate that this one will be found on reading lists for comprehensive examinations for at least as long. Thanks in large part to David and Heather’s organizational acumen, a number of other leading and up-and-coming scholars have contributed compelling analyses of current and future foreign policy challenges. Claire Turenne Sjolander’s hard-hitting empirical assessment of the current government’s efforts to refashion Canada’s international identity is complemented nicely by Tom Keating’s more theoretical approach. Caroline Dunton and Veronica Kitchen discuss the much-ignored challenges facing Canadian police forces that are becoming increasingly involved in security initiatives beyond the national borders. Christopher Kukucha provides a cogent summary of the evolution of academic writing on Canadian foreign trade policy. The final scholarly article in the collection is perhaps the most controversial and provocative. Jean-Christophe Boucher uses quantitative analysis to argue that Canadian foreign policy scholarship lacks the methodological rigour of a credible research programme. Rather than waiting for the community to respond, the editors invited one of the field’s most reputable scholars, Brian Bow, whose Donner award winning book The Politics of Linkage: Power, Independence, and Ideas in Canada-US Relations (UBC Press, 2009) so effectively breached the academic/practitioner divide, to offer an immediate reaction.

Francine McKenzie contributes to our lessons of history series by examining the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement between Canada and the European Union with a view to the past. In our review section, two of Canada’s senior foreign policy authorities, Kim Richard Nossal and Andrew Fenton Cooper, look back at one another’s 1997 textbooks in order to understand how much has really changed in Canada since the Jean Chrétien/Lloyd Axworthy years. We conclude the issue with a series of reviews of some of the latest international relations scholarship.

The publication of this issue also provides us with an opportunity to acknowledge the winners of IJ’s three article prizes for 2013. Adam Lockyer’s article ‘‘The Logic of interoperability: Australia’s acquisition of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter’’ (vol. 68, no.1: 71–91) becomes the inaugural winner of the new SAGE award for international scholarship. We congratulate David MacKenzie, who wins this year’s Marcel Cadieux Award for the best article on Canadian foreign policy, for ‘‘An early effort in cultural diplomacy: The Canadian Co-operation Project and Canadian tourism’’ (vol. 68, no. 4: 576–590). And we salute Robert Nathan, the latest recipient of the Marvin Gelber Prize, which recognizes the best article by a new scholar, for his ‘‘Democracy in early Malian postcolonial history: The abuse of discourse’’ (vol. 68, no. 3: 466–478).

Finally, we offer thanks to Stéfanie von Hlatky for her excellent work as book review editor. As Stéfanie moves on to greater administrative responsibilities at her home institution, we look forward to welcoming Mathilde von Bülow to our editorial team.

Mairi MacDonald, University of Toronto
Adam Chapnick, Canadian Forces College and Royal Military College of Canada


Editors’ Introduction
Adam Chapnick and Mairi MacDonald

Scholarly Essays

Still notable? Reassessing theoretical “exceptions” in Canadian foreign policy literature
David R. Black and Heather A. Smith

Through the looking glass: Canadian identity and the War of 1812
Claire Turenne Sjolander

The transition in Canadian foreign policy through an English School lens
Tom Keating

Paradiplomatic policing and relocating Canadian foreign policy
Caroline Dunton and Veronica Kitchen

International relations theory and Canadian foreign trade policy
Christopher J. Kukucha

Yearning for a progressive research program in Canadian foreign policy
Jean-Christophe Boucher

Invited Response

Measuring Canadian foreign policy
Brian Bow

The Lessons of History

Faith, fear, and free trade
Francine McKenzie

Review Essays

Looking back to and forward from Kim Richard Nossal’s The Politics of Canadian Foreign Policy
Andrew F. Cooper

Old habits and new directions indeed
Kim Richard Nossal

Book Reviews

European Security in NATO’s Shadow: Party Ideologies and Institution Building, by Stephanie C. Hofmann
Simon Miles

Canada and Conflict: A Hard-Hitting Look at Canadian Security Post 9/11, from the Afghanistan War to US Relations and Arctic Sovereignty, by Patrick James
Brian C. Shipley

The Diplomacy of Impartiality: Canada and Israel 1958–1968, by Zachariah Kay
Michael Carroll

Islam, the Shari’a and Alternative Dipute Resolution: Mechanisms for Legal Redress in the Muslim Community, by Mohamed Keshavjee
Amin B. Sajoo

The Muslim Brotherhood: Evolution of an Islamist Movement, by Carrie Rosefsky Wickham
Dalal Daoud


Past Issues


About IJ

International Journal (IJ) is Canada’s pre-eminent journal of global policy analysis. It combines brief, policy-relevant articles with longer, peer-reviewed, scholarly assessments of interest to foreign policy-makers, analysts and academics in Canada and around the world. IJ is cross-disciplinary, combining the insights of history, political science, and economics with anthropology and other social sciences to advance research and dialogue on issues of global significance.

Established in 1946, IJ is the scholarly publication of the Canadian International Council (CIC) and the Bill Graham Centre for Contemporary International History (CCIH). The CIC is a non-partisan, nationwide council established to strengthen Canada’s role in international affairs. The Bill Graham Centre is a joint undertaking of Trinity College and the Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto. It promotes the study of recent international events from a historical standpoint, and pursues programs of research, teaching, publication and other activities to that end.

In 2013 the CIC and the Bill Graham Centre were pleased to partner with SAGE Publications to publish International Journal. Read more about the new partnership here.





Adam Chapnick, Co-Editor

Adam Chapnick is the deputy director of education at the Canadian Forces College and an associate professor of defence studies at the Royal Military College of Canada. He joined the Canadian Forces College in 2006 and currently teaches courses in Canadian governance and strategic decision-making and Canadian foreign policy.

Among his five written or edited books, Canada’s Voice: The Public Life of John Wendell Holmes (2009) and The Middle Power Project: Canada and the Founding of the United Nations (2005) were shortlisted for the annual Dafoe Prize.

He is also a regular commentator in the national media. His opinion editorials have been published in the National Post, the Toronto Star, the Ottawa Citizen, the Calgary Herald, and the Embassy. He has appeared as a foreign policy expert on Canada AM and CBC radio.

He holds a PhD in history from the University of Toronto.


Mairi MacDonald, Co-Editor

Mairi MacDonald is the director of the International Relations Program in Trinity College at the University of Toronto. Since joining Trinity in 2011, she has taught courses concerning the decolonization of Africa, international development, and legal ethics.

Before receiving her PhD from the University of Toronto in 2009, she practised law for a number of years, specializing in the policy and law of telecommunications and broadcasting in Canada, Europe, and several African countries, and was involved as instructing counsel in the creation of Canada’s current legislative framework in this area. She has published a number of articles drawn from her award-winning doctoral research concerning Guinea’s accession to and experience of independence. Her current research focuses on the implications of the fact that the Scramble for Africa was framed as a matter of international humanitarian law.



Submissions to the journal are welcomed in the following categories:

Policy briefs: contemporary global policy assessments of approximately 3,000 words that aim to shape public debate. Footnotes should be limited to 15.

Scholarly essays: extended analyses of 5,000 to 8,000 words that explore topics in global policy and international relations with significant rigour and scholarly depth. These articles may include up to 60 footnotes.

Book reviews: reviews of approximately 1,000 words, as well as review essays of approximately 3,000 words. Please contact the Book Reviews Editor, Mathilde von Bülow, at

International Journal is hosted on SAGE Track, a web-based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Please visit to log in and submit your article online.

The editors also welcome proposals for thematic issues. For further details, please contact the editors directly at or



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The Marcel Cadieux Distinguished Writing Award

The Marcel Cadieux Distinguished Writing Award is an annual prize of $1000 given to the author of the best article on Canadian foreign policy in a volume of International Journal.

The Marvin Gelber Essay Prize

The Marvin Gelber Essay Prize carries an award of $1000 and is given annually to the author of the best article by a junior scholar in a volume of IJ.

The SAGE Prize for International Scholarship

The SAGE Prize for International Scholarship is an annual prize of $1000 given to the author of the best article on international affairs in a volume of International Journal.